Texas CNA Skills (Part Fourteen): the Five-Surface Wash Cloth Method for Perineal Care

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Perineal care, commonly referred to as peri-care, is the routine care that nurses, nursing assistants and caregivers perform on clients’ genital areas and buttocks to maintain cleanliness, eliminate unpleasant odors, and reduce the microorganism count on this part of the body. Perineal care is a state-testable skill that might randomly appear on a candidate’s CNA state exam, so knowing how to do all steps properly is important.

It is crucial that nurse aides know how to perform perineal care correctly since the client’s perineal area has the potential of becoming infected if this skill is not done the right way. Proper perineal care promotes comfort, infection control, safety and privacy. When performing this skill, always provide for the client’s privacy and wipe from front to back to avoid introducing germs from the anus and buttocks into the urinary tract.

Since the client’s comfort should be kept in mind throughout the procedure, be very gentle and careful when performing perineal care because this part of the body can be extremely sensitive to extremes in touch and temperature. The necessary supplies to perform this skill include a pair of gloves, a wash basin, lukewarm water, soap, six wash cloths, two bath towels, and two bed protectors (also known as ‘chucks’).

To maintain cleanliness and prevent infections, take the extra time to use a new part of the wash cloth with each wipe to ensure that a clean area of the cloth is always being used. Legacy Healthcare Careers recommends the five-surface method for using wash cloths while providing perineal care at the CNA state test. If executed the right way, the five-surface method enables nurse aides to use five different parts of one wash cloth.

The five-surface method has a couple of benefits. First of all, it provides a clean part of the wash cloth for each wipe, and this is important for achieving a passing score on the perineal care skill at the CNA state exam. Second of all, it keeps the nurse aide from going through too many wash cloths, and this can be immensely helpful when working at a healthcare facility that experiences ongoing shortages of clean linens.

To use the five-surface method, get a wash cloth and fold it in half, then fold it in half a second time to end up with a smaller wash cloth. Thereafter, hold the wash cloth with the four corners pointed upward. Use the first corner of the wash cloth to wipe one area. Then fold the first corner downward and wipe another area with the second corner. Continue to fold each corner until the back of the wash cloth, which will be used as the fifth wiping surface, is reached.

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In essence, the five-surface method purposely involves use of five different parts of the wash cloth for wiping the client while performing perineal care:

  • the first corner
  • the second corner
  • the third corner
  • the fourth corner
  • The back of the wash cloth

REFERENCES

Tanner, D. (2019). How to Give Perineal Care. Retrieved April 28, 2019, from https://www.caregiverology.com/perineal-care.html

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Scholastic Spotlight: the Art of Taking Notes

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We know. It is a widely known fact that not all pupils enjoy the tasks of writing or taking notes. To some students, writing and note-taking are tedious activities they would simply prefer to not do at all. On the other hand, note-taking is one of the most crucial actions students can take to promote their own active learning. This rings especially true for those enrolled in healthcare training programs and health science coursework.

Alas, a multitude of convincing reasons exist for the sheer importance of taking notes in school. Thus, for the sake of time, only the most significant rationale will be pointed out here: taking good quality notes tends to help students remember and recall important material that they would have otherwise forgotten. Recall and remembrance of crucial material is very essential when studying for quizzes, tests and the state exam.

To reiterate that point, taking notes is a really important task. This fact has already been established. However, taking notes correctly and efficiently is not always as simple a task as it appears to be on the surface. Good, effective note-taking does not just call upon students to write down every word the instructor or professor says in a haphazard way. In fact, effectual note-taking entails capturing main ideas in the student’s own words.

One recurrent theme most good students share is the fact that they adhere to a specific way of taking notes in class. A specific note-taking style assists students to focus and organize prior to class; in addition, it helps them effectively review and recall crucial concepts long after class has ended. Adhering to one note-taking style and sticking with it will help students pay attention during class while capturing important information.

Sticking to one specific style of taking notes has an array of other study-related benefits, too. For some students, it bestows more than enough motivation upon them to stay attuned to class discussions, pay close attention and participate in an active manner. It helps students reword their notes effectively so they do not lose focus of the main concepts and ideas once they start studying for final exams.

The following list provides an overview of the different styles of taking notes in school settings. It is advised to pick one method and try to stick with it unless another style of note-taking seems more suitable for the topic of study. Of course, now that this information is out here, students may take it and utilize it as they wish. Students are also totally free to avoid using any of this information at their own peril).

  • Flow-Based Note Taking Style: a way of taking notes in which the pupil writes down the main concepts instead of verbatim paragraphs and sentences. The student connects the written notes and concepts by drawing arrows, boxes and diagrams to link them together as interrelated ideas.
  • The Cornell Note Taking Style: a method of taking notes that organizes class topics of discussion into easily memorable summaries. This style works since the main concepts and summaries are all written in one place. In the Cornell Method, the note paper is divided into 3 sections: a 2.5” margin to the left, a 2” summary section on the bottom, and a main 6” in-class note section.
  • The Bullet Point Style: this is a method of taking notes that involves simply jotting down each noteworthy detail as a bullet point sentence. This style of note-taking works particularly wonderful for capturing important points in class discussions that are moving along quickly, as wells as fast-paced lectures that are filled with a great deal of information.
  • The Outline Style: this method is, in all likelihood, the most popular way to take notes in schools. This style of note-taking involves an outline to organize the noted material in a structured, logical manner that forms somewhat of a skeleton of the textbook chapter or lecture subject and serves as a wondrous study guide when preparing for tests (Missouri State University, n.d.).

REFERENCES

Missouri State University. (n.d.). Outlining Method for Note Taking. Retrieved March 16, 2019, from https://www.missouristate.edu/assets/busadv/p.24.pdf

Positive Thoughts for Students Who Think They Cannot Do It (Part Two)

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Negativity is powerful enough to hold us back if we pay too much attention to it. In fact, negativity has the damaging power to crush some peoples’ hopes, dreams, goals and plans for brighter futures. With all of the negative vibes and poor normative cues that flood our day to day lives, it can be a monumental fight for even the strongest-willed individual to genuinely believe in one’s abilities to accomplish goals.

Nonetheless, much of the negativity comes from within. That pesky internal voice in our neural network of deepest thoughts shouts out to us louder than any other person ever could. However, positivity can cancel out the negativity. Having a strong belief in one’s own ability to get things done makes the difference. A positive outlook is of the essence because you must believe in yourself in order for others to believe in you.

In essence, take some time out of each day to nurture your soul with at least one positive affirmation. You should never be made to feel that you do not deserve success. Actually, you deserve to live the kind of life you want to live just as long as you are willing to devote the effort to achieve this. People should not feel that they are somehow faulty or undeserving of having the markers of a worthy existence. You are worth it!

The overriding message is to keep on trucking until you make enough progress to obtain the sort of changes you want to see. We can have virtually anything we want, and common sense prescribes that you will eventually get what you want. Conversely, it must be emphasized that you must change your inner thoughts in order to change your life. In other words, think positively. Talk positively. Live your life with positivity.

POSITIVE THOUGHT NUMBER FOUR: “I am a worthy person who has something good to offer.”

You, as a uniquely special human being, are worthy of giving and receiving. You have something decidedly special to offer to humankind, but only you know what it may be. You are worthy of receiving goodness, success, and all the fruits that come with the territory of these attributes. Realize that you are worthy and wholly deserving of the existence that has been bestowed upon you.

POSITIVE THOUGHT NUMBER FIVE: “I am thankful for all that I currently have in my life.”

Have an attitude of gratitude. You may think you presently have it bad, but others out there assuredly have it a hundred times worse. You might be complaining about your old shoes while someone out there has no feet. You might be complaining about your underachieving kids while parents in a developing country are grieving the loss of a young child that they could not afford to feed.

If all your basic needs of food and shelter are being met, be thankful and grateful for what you’ve got. Have some gratitude. Focus on what you currently have, as well as the things you would like to work toward. It is easier to focus on what you have rather than what you do not have.

 

Reasons to Consider a Healthcare Career (Part Four)

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NOTE: This piece is the fourth in a six-part essay that seeks to cast some light on the top reasons to think about entering a healthcare career pathway. Click here to read the first essay. Click here to read the second part, and click right here to read part three. Click here for parts five and six.

A number of amazing reasons exist for integrating a healthcare career into one’s future career plans. The overwhelming majority of people cannot lose out by becoming a part of the healthcare industry, regardless of their current skill level or prior educational attainment. Inexperienced entry-level workers are very much welcomed in healthcare, and so are the highly experienced career changers.

Parts one, two, three, five and six and of this six-part essay arguably succeeded at shedding some light on good reasons to think about selecting a career in the healthcare sector. Guess what? There are some additional reasons for joining the ranks of the healthcare sector. Continue reading to find out more about these fantastic reasons to become a healthcare worker in the near future.

REASON 10: The healthcare sector has a refreshing array of variety.

It has been previously said that “variety is the spice of life.” Healthcare contains plenty of variety that keeps things interesting for those who work in this booming industry. The healthcare industry is home to a number of diverse and fulfilling career pathways. There are healthcare careers that involve direct hands-on patient care, managerial duties, scientific research, administration, consultative services, educational instruction, and innovation.

Healthcare workers can work in a multitude of workplace settings. Healthcare workers can be found working in healthcare environments such as acute care hospitals, skilled nursing home facilities, insurance companies, the pharmaceutical industry, jails, prisons, personal care group homes, colleges, the military, schools, and hospice. Healthcare workers also secure employment with the federal government, home health companies, clinics, physicians offices, elementary schools, and infusion centers.

REASON 11: Healthcare sector occupations have good opportunities for career progression.

Career progression, also known as career mobility, is a great process in which workers climb up the different rungs of the economic ladder in order to to earn higher pay and achieve more occupational prestige. For instance, a nursing assistant can go back to school to become a licensed practical nurse (LPN), licensed vocational nurse (LVN), registered nurse (RN) or advanced practice nurse (APN).

A certified pharmacy technician can go to pharmacy school to pursue a lucrative career as a pharmacist, and a physician’s assistant (PA-C) can attend medical school to become a licensed physician who works in any number of great medical specialties. There are many more examples of career progression in the healthcare field.

In addition, the healthcare field has always welcomed entrants who have clear-cut aspirations of advancing their careers. In general, nurse managers love it when a patient care assistant expresses the desire to return to college part-time to become a nurse. Nursing home administrators are often supportive of employees who opt to take additional coursework to become licensed nursing facility administrators.

REASON 12: Healthcare workers play key roles to help clients improve and get better.

Healthcare workers play an integral role in assisting clients to improve their outcomes. Essentially, most types of healthcare workers help clients improve and heal, whether it is through direct patient care or more indirect methods. It is important that patients who enter the healthcare system start feeling better and improving as soon as humanly possible, and healthcare workers use their skills to facilitate these improvements.

Patients progress more optimally when an interdisciplinary team of healthcare workers and providers contribute to their care because each worker brings a different type of expertise to the table. For example, physicians diagnose and treat disease processes while nurses plan the care of their patients. Pharmacists do a number of important things to enhance compliance to medication regimens. Nursing assistants provide direct hands-on care while communicating changes in the patients’ statuses.

This is a gentle reminder that if you are in the Dallas /Fort Worth area of Texas, you can transform your life in only 7 days by training at Legacy Healthcare Careers to become a nursing assistant through our 7-day CNA program. Call Legacy Healthcare Careers CNA School at (682)626-5266 to enroll in either the 7-day CNA program, the 2-week CNA class, or the 3-week CNA class.

You can also visit the school’s website at www.LegacyHealthcareCareers.com to apply online and/or collect additional info on the affordable, high quality nurse aide training programs that are offered. Now is the perfect time to jump-start your legacy…

 

Reasons to Consider a Healthcare Career (Part Three)

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NOTE: This is the third installment in a six-part series of posts that aims to illuminate some great reasons to seriously think about obtaining a career in the healthcare field. Click here to read part one, and click right here to read part two. Also, click here for parts four, five, and six.

A myriad of solid reasons exist for incorporating a healthcare career into one’s life. Parts one and two of this five-part series brought up multiple compelling reasons to consider a career in the healthcare industry. Continue reading to find out about several more of these awesome justifications for becoming a healthcare worker.

REASON 7: Healthcare workers meet wonderful people on a day to day basis.

Healthcare workers cannot avoid encounters with a wide variety of interesting people. Some of these interesting folks include patients, family members, physicians, nurses, nursing assistants, case managers, clinical social workers, dietary staff, physical therapists, administrators, managers, pharmacists, psychologists, and so many other types of clinicians, healthcare providers and assistive support staff.

Not only do healthcare workers get to meet a variety of great people on a daily basis, but they have the opportunity to learn new pearls of wisdom due to the collective body of knowledge that every single one of these individuals bring to the table. Each person in the healthcare sector can teach valuable lessons that will surely enhance our lives regardless of one’s educational level or occupational status. Thus, interesting people can lead to constantly invigorating shifts at the workplace.

REASON 8: Jobs in the healthcare field are in continual demand.

The healthcare industry is continually expanding; therefore, all the jobs and career pathways related to direct patient care are in demand. Countless employment opportunities exist in the burgeoning healthcare industry. Direct care members of nursing staff such as bedside nurses, nursing assistants, home health aides and patient care technicians are in explosive demand due to the hands-on skills they possess.

For instance, nursing assistants are in astoundingly high demand. The number of employment opportunities for nursing assistants and nurse aides has been projected to increase by approximately 11 percent through 2026, which is faster than the average for all other jobs according to the United States Bureau of Labor Statistics (2018). The projections are glowingly optimistic for the future of healthcare.

REASON 9: There are a whole lot of job opportunities in the healthcare field.

There is an abundance of opportunities for employment in the healthcare industry. A person can simply read the employment section of the local newspaper and see all the job openings for differing types of healthcare workers. On the other hand, those who are more technologically inclined can view the vast number of healthcare job openings on employment websites such as Indeed, Monster and Careerbuilder.

Prospective students who have opted to enter the healthcare industry will soon be able to pick from a large selection of great job opportunities upon successful completion of their education and training. There are opportunities and settings to suit all types of personalities and interests. Some types of healthcare workers can work in hospitals, extended care facilities, clinics, physicians’ offices, personal care group homes, and an array of other types of workplace settings.

Do you really need any other compelling reasons to enter the booming healthcare industry? You can experience a life-changing transformation by entering a new a career pathway as a nursing assistant in as little as one week (7 days) if you make the choice to do so.

Call Legacy Healthcare Careers CNA School at (682)626-5266 to enroll in either the 7-day CNA program, the 2-week CNA class, or the 3-week CNA classes in the Dallas /Fort Worth area of Texas. Or, if you wish, you can feel free to visit the school’s informative website at www.LegacyHealthcareCareers.com to gather more information about the affordable nurse aide training programs. Jump-start your legacy right here and right now…

Informative YouTube Channel

A newer YouTube channel has been created! The YouTube channel for the Legacy Healthcare Careers Nursing Assistant School can be accessed by clicking here

Legacy Healthcare Careers’ very own YouTube channel contains a host of informative videos on different topics that pertain specifically to nursing assistants and aspiring CNAs. Some of these topics include the CNA state test, hands-on skills for nurse aides, written practice questions with answers, dress codes, and additional information that nursing assistants might be able to utilize in their daily practice as healthcare clinicians.

In summary, if you are an experienced CNA, current nurse aide student, direct care worker, caregiver, or perhaps just entertaining the idea of becoming a nursing assistant one day in the distant future, you may wish to visit our channel on YouTube to see if the assorted pearls of wisdom found within the short videos may be of benefit to you.

As always, prospective students in the Dallas-Fort Worth area of Texas should contact Legacy Healthcare Careers Nursing Assistant School to obtain quality, fast-track, affordable nurse aide training in as little as 7 days. Yes, you did read that last blurb correctly: Legacy Healthcare Careers offers a unique 1-week CNA program that could help you transition into a new healthcare career as a nursing assistant in just 7 days.

In the very near future, Legacy Healthcare Careers will also offer a brand new certified medication aide training program to prospective students in the Dallas-Fort Worth metro area. The staff of Legacy Healthcare Careers is in the beginning phases of adhering to the multiple regulatory steps associated with the addition of the medication aide classes to the school’s current course offerings. More details will be added as the development of the certified medication aide training program reaches completion time.

Call (682)626-5266 to schedule an appointment time to enroll or visit the school’s website to submit an online application for enrollment at www.LegacyHealthcareCareers.com.

 

Reasons to Consider a Healthcare Career (Part One)

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NOTE: This piece is the very first post in a comprehensive six-part series of essays that attempts to shine the figurative light upon some of the more compelling reasons people should seriously think about paving a career pathway in the burgeoning healthcare industry. Click here to read the second part, and click here for part three. Also, click here for parts four and five. Finally, click right here to read part six.

Healthcare is a huge industry in many countries around the world. Therefore, it would make absolutely perfect sense that a large industry such as healthcare would be bursting at the seams with an abundance of good opportunities for people who have enough tenacity to pursue it as a career. A number of very compelling reasons exist for considering a career pathway in the healthcare field. Keep reading to unearth some of these reasons!

REASON 1: Healthcare workplaces tend to be very interesting.

It is true: there is hardly ever a dull moment in healthcare. There will always be a new admission, discharge, interesting medical conditions, entertaining family members, helpful coworkers, changing workflows, and learning opportunities to keep your days at work filled with excitement. Healthcare work environments such as hospitals and skilled nursing facilities tend to be particularly interesting workplaces.

REASON 2: Healthcare jobs are associated with good pay and benefits.

The majority of healthcare job openings are for full-time positions that offer steady pay, decent benefit packages, and the potential for wage increases. In addition to the pay, the benefit packages are worth some money, too! Benefits such as employer-sponsored health insurance, paid time off, vacation hours, sick pay and life insurance cost the employer money while financially benefiting you.

Also, many employers provide a perk known as 401k matching. In other words, if a worker contributes a certain amount of money to a 401k retirement account, the employer will actually match it by contributing the exact same amount. This can result in thousands of free dollars to the employee every year if regular 401k contributions are made. 401k matching is a fringe benefit that cannot be beat!

REASON 3: Some healthcare jobs do not require many years of training.

A number of the most popular healthcare jobs do not require many years of education or training. For example, an individual can become a certified nursing assistant (CNA) in just a few short weeks. A person can study to become a medical assistant in a few short months. Moreover, someone can become a licensed practical nurse (LPN), known as a licensed vocational nurse (LVN) in Texas and California, in about a year.

Legacy Healthcare Careers CNA School is excited to announce course offerings that can enable people to enter the healthcare industry in as little as 7 days (one week). Legacy Healthcare Careers offers a 4-week CNA program as well as a 1-week CNA program in the Dallas-Fort Worth area of Texas. Both CNA courses of study are state-approved and can permanently transform students’ lives by jump-starting their healthcare careers.

Please place that telephone call to Legacy Healthcare Careers at (682)626-5266 to enroll. Legacy Healthcare Careers will also offer a certified medication aide program in the very near future to CNAs and direct care workers who would like to advance their healthcare careers to the next level. Jump-start your legacy today…

 

Top Questions You Must Ask Of Any Nursing Assistant Training Program

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To communicate this message in the most straightforward manner possible, not all certified nursing assistant (CNA) training programs are created equally. First of all, some CNA programs are offered at community colleges whereas other classes are taught at private schools or nonprofit organizations. Second of all, differing schools can charge drastically different tuition and fees for what is essentially the same CNA training.

Thirdly, some schools offer ongoing support services after students graduate from the nursing assistant training program while other schools offer absolutely nothing whatsoever. Ongoing support for nursing assistant graduates that some schools offer can be in the form of job placement assistance, CNA state test preparation courses post-graduation, provision of recommendation letters to other schools and employers, and help with writing résumés and cover letters.

Without further ado, the following is a compilation of questions that prospective students may wish to ask of any nursing assistant training programs they are considering attending.

  1. Is the CNA program approved? Nurse aide training programs must be approved to operate in the state where the school is located. If the nurse aide training program is not approved, graduates will typically not qualify to sit for the CNA state test.
  2. How long does the CNA program take to complete? Some programs take a week or two to complete, whereas other programs drag it out over the duration of an 16-week entire semester.
  3.  Does this program offer job placement assistance? Some nurse aide training programs offer job placement assistance to graduates, which is an immensely helpful service.
  4. Is the CNA program taught by nurses? Most states require nurse aide training programs to be taught by licensed nurses. Some CNA programs employ registered nurses (RNs) to teach all classes, whereas other programs utilize licensed practical/ vocational nurses (LPNs/ LVNs) to provide all the instruction. RNs tend to have more years of clinical and theoretical education than LPNs/ LVNs.
  5. Does the school offer help with passing the CNA state test? Some programs provide ongoing support to help graduates of the CNA training program pass the CNA state test. This is a fabulously helpful service that comes in handy to graduates who need extra help.
  6. What is the average class size? Some schools offer smaller class sizes of less than 10 pupils per class. Other CNA programs can have up to 20+ students attending nurse aide classes together. In general, smaller class sizes can translate into a higher level of individualized attention and more time for questions.

The nursing assistant training programs at Legacy Healthcare Careers CNA School are fully approved to operate by the Texas Workforce Commission (TWC) and the state Department of Aging and Disability (DADS). In addition, Legacy Healthcare Careers offers job placement assistance to graduates, preparation for the CNA state test, and small class sizes that promote individualized attention to all students.

Moreover, all classes offered at Legacy Healthcare Careers are taught by RNs with many years of combined clinical experience. The tuition and fees for the CNA classes are affordable; additionally, the school offers a highly innovative 7-day course of study that enables students to become nursing assistants in only one week. Call (682)626-5266 to enroll or visit the school’s website at www.LegacyHealthcareCareers.com for more information.

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CNA State Examination Practice Questions (Part Four)

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QUESTION: The resident has returned to the nursing home this afternoon after having undergone a minor same-day surgery at a freestanding surgical center earlier this morning. The resident has a doctor’s order to receive a full liquid diet for the rest of the day. The resident is now telling the nursing assistant, “I am getting really hungry right now.” Which food items and fluids would be appropriate on the meal tray of a resident who has been prescribed a full liquid diet?

A. Cream soup, broth, vanilla ice cream, water, and orange juice

B. Chicken noodle soup, sliced apples, side salad, and hot tea

C. Turkey bacon sandwich, corn on the cob, pudding, and milk

D. Spaghetti with meatballs, green beans, chocolate cake, and cola

ANSWER: A (The full liquid diet consists of fluids and food items that are usually in liquid form, as well as food items that will melt into liquid form when they are at room temperature, such as ice cream, ice cubes and popsicles. The full liquid diet allows the resident’s body to heal from the recent surgical procedure).

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QUESTION: The charge nurse has told the nursing assistant, “The patient in room 209 is in shock.” The nursing assistant knows to place the patient in which of the following positions in bed if any signs and symptoms of shock are noted:

A. The high Fowler’s position

B. The Trendelenberg position

C. The Sims’ position

D. The low Fowler’s position

ANSWER: B (The nursing assistant would place the patient in the Trendelenberg position when the signs and symptoms of shock are being experienced by the patient. This position places the legs of the patient in an elevated position that is higher than the head. This position also promotes return of the blood in the extremities (arms and legs) back into the circulating blood, therefore increasing the patient’s blood volume and blood pressure. The Sims and Fowler’s positions cannot produce these effects).

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QUESTION: The instructor is teaching a group of nurse aide students about the various roles of the different members of the multidisciplinary team within a typical nursing home setting. The instructor knows that her teaching has been effective if the nurse aide student is able to correctly pair the following healthcare worker with the associated duties and functions:

A. Dietitian: meal preparation

B. Speech language pathologist: instruction of new languages

C. Physical therapist: ambulation and balance/gait exercises

D. Certified nursing assistant: ordering medications

ANSWER: C (Physical therapists deliver rehabilitative and restorative care techniques, including assistance with ambulation and balance/gait exercises. Speech language pathologists, also known as speech therapists, assess and treat residents who are afflicted with swallowing disorders; in addition, they assess and treat residents with speech disorders and communicative problems that sometimes happen after a stroke. Speech language pathologists do not teach people new languages.

The primary role of a dietitian in the nursing home setting is to formulate nutritional programs designed to improve or maintain the health statuses of the residents who reside there; conversely, they do not prepare meals in the nursing home setting. Ordering medications is not within the scope of practice for certified nursing assistants).

 

CNA State Examination Practice Questions (Part Three)

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QUESTION: The nursing assistant has been assigned to deliver care to a patient who has been placed on contact precautions. The nursing assistant is selecting the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) attire to wear prior to delivering care to a patient who has been placed on contact precautions if which of the following items will be worn:

A. Gloves and a gown

B. Gloves, gown, and a face mask

C. Gloves, gown, a face mask, and a face shield

D. Gloves, gown, a HEPA mask, and a face shield

ANSWER: A (Contact precautions require the use of gloves and a gown at the very minimum. Droplet transmission precautions require the use of a medical face mask at the very minimum. Airborne transmission precautions, at the minimum, require the use of a negative pressure room and a HEPA mask, also known as a particulate respirator).

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QUESTION: The nurse aide student is attending a nursing assistant class this morning. The nurse aide instructor asks all the students, “What is the single most important action that nursing assistants and other healthcare workers take in order to prevent the spread of infections?” The nurse aide student is providing a correct response when he gives which of the following answers:

A. Wearing personal protective equipment before delivering care

B. Performing hand-washing before and after delivering care

C. Adhering to universal precautions before delivering care

D. Using clean technique prior to delivering care

ANSWER: B (Hand-washing is the single most important action that nursing assistants, nurses, and other healthcare workers can take in order to prevent the spread of infection. Adhering to universal precautions, utilizing personal protective equipment in a correct manner, and using clean technique also reduce the spread of infections. Nonetheless, hand-washing is the single most important action that can be taken by all healthcare workers to prevent the spread of infection).

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QUESTION: The nurse aide student is learning about documentation and charting during this morning’s nursing assistant class. The nurse aide student asks the instructor, “Who is responsible for the documentation at the hospital or nursing home?” The correct answer is which of the following responses:

A. The registered nurse (RN) is accountable for everything, including documentation of all care provided by the nursing assistants

B. The licensed practical / vocational nurse (LPN /LVN) should document all care, including the care provided by the nursing assistants

C. All members of staff, including nursing assistants, need to document the care that they have provided

D. All members of staff need to document the care that they have provided, and the physician will sign off on the documentation

ANSWER: C (All members of nursing staff, including nursing assistants, are responsible for documenting and signing off on all of the patient care that they have personally delivered. For instance, the nursing assistants will chart the showers and bed baths that they have given to the patients. The licensed practical /vocational nurses will chart all of the wound care and medications that they have administered to the patients. The registered nurse will chart the various nursing diagnoses that they have formulated and the patient assessments that they have performed. Generally, physicians are not required to sign off on the patient care documentation of nurses and nursing assistants in the hospital and/or nursing home settings).